Figure 1: Thickening of the intestinal tract with Crohn's disease and consequently narrowing of the intestinal cavity
Figure 2: View of pavement due to wall thickening and ulcers in the diseased intestine
Symptoms of Crohn's Disease
Chronic, often night-time diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss, nausea and fever are common symptoms. Swelling, pain, vomiting and constipation may occur in the presence of severe congestion. In patients with large bowel involvement, fecal blood may also be seen. Systemic symptoms such as fatigue, weakness and fever may occur during attacks of Crohn's disease. Other important findings are fractures around the breech, inflamed discharge fistulas and abscesses.
Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease
Radiological examinations can be used in the differential diagnosis of the disease and are important in detecting the diseased intestinal area or determining the severity of the disease.
It is the examination of the small intestine and the last part of the small intestine with a bendable camera system called a colonoscope and taking biopsies that may be important in the diagnosis during this examination and examining them under a microscope. Crohn's disease with small bowel involvement is 100 times more likely to develop cancer than normal. Cancer occurs mostly in the ileum and in the region of chronic disease.
Drugs for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease
Nowadays, there are 3 main treatment groups aimed at preventing the inflammatory reaction related to the disease.
- Aminosalicylates: They are used in mild to moderate disease.
- Corticosteroids: It is used to relieve symptoms when aminosalicylates are insufficient in active disease.
- Immune regulating agents: These drugs are used in long-term treatment.
Surgery in Crohn's Disease
Surgery should be performed when drugs are insufficient or abscess, bowel obstruction, bowel puncture or cancer or precancerous lesions develop.
In the treatment of Crohn's disease, removal of the diseased intestine does not provide a permanent solution. In cases where surgery is absolutely necessary, avoiding this may cause problems to increase. In cases such as abscesses and fistulas around the breech, some local interventions can be performed for this area.